Module Interface

cx_Oracle.__future__

Special object which contains attributes which control the behavior of cx_Oracle, allowing for opting in for new features. No attributes are currently supported so all attributes will silently ignore being set and will always appear to have the value None.

Note

This method is an extension to the DB API definition.

New in version 6.2.

cx_Oracle.Binary(string)

Construct an object holding a binary (long) string value.

cx_Oracle.clientversion()

Return the version of the client library being used as a 5-tuple. The five values are the major version, minor version, update number, patch number and port update number.

Note

This method is an extension to the DB API definition.

cx_Oracle.connect(user=None, password=None, dsn=None, mode=cx_Oracle.DEFAULT_AUTH, handle=0, pool=None, threaded=False, events=False, cclass=None, purity=cx_Oracle.ATTR_PURITY_DEFAULT, newpassword=None, encoding=None, nencoding=None, edition=None, appcontext=[], tag=None, matchanytag=None, shardingkey=[], supershardingkey=[], stmtcachesize=20)
cx_Oracle.Connection(user=None, password=None, dsn=None, mode=cx_Oracle.DEFAULT_AUTH, handle=0, pool=None, threaded=False, events=False, cclass=None, purity=cx_Oracle.ATTR_PURITY_DEFAULT, newpassword=None, encoding=None, nencoding=None, edition=None, appcontext=[], tag=None, matchanytag=False, shardingkey=[], supershardingkey=[], stmtcachesize=20)

Constructor for creating a connection to the database. Return a connection object. All parameters are optional and can be specified as keyword parameters. See Connecting to Oracle Database information about connections.

The dsn (data source name) is the TNS entry (from the Oracle names server or tnsnames.ora file) or is a string like the one returned from makedsn(). If the user parameter is passed and the password and dsn parameters are not passed, the user parameter is assumed to be a connect string in the format user/password@dsn, the same format accepted by Oracle applications such as SQL*Plus. See Connection Strings for more information.

If the mode is specified, it must be one of the connection authorization modes which are defined at the module level.

If the handle is specified, it must be of type OCISvcCtx* and is only of use when embedding Python in an application (like PowerBuilder) which has already made the connection. The connection thus created should never be used after the source handle has been closed or destroyed.

The pool parameter is expected to be a session pool object and the use of this parameter is the equivalent of calling SessionPool.acquire(). Parameters not accepted by that method are ignored.

The threaded parameter is expected to be a boolean expression which indicates whether or not Oracle should wrap accesses to connections with a mutex.

The events parameter is expected to be a boolean expression which indicates whether or not to initialize Oracle in events mode. This is required for continuous query notification and high availability event notifications.

The cclass parameter is expected to be a string and defines the connection class for database resident connection pooling (DRCP).

The purity parameter is expected to be one of ATTR_PURITY_NEW, ATTR_PURITY_SELF, or ATTR_PURITY_DEFAULT.

The newpassword parameter is expected to be a string if specified and sets the password for the logon during the connection process.

See the globalization section for details on the encoding and nencoding parameters. Note the default encoding and nencoding values changed to “UTF-8” in cx_Oracle 8, and any character set in NLS_LANG is ignored. In a future release of cx_Oracle, only UTF-8 will be supported.

The edition parameter is expected to be a string if specified and sets the edition to use for the session. It is only relevant if both the client and the database are at least Oracle Database 11.2. If this parameter is used with the cclass parameter the exception “DPI-1058: edition not supported with connection class” will be raised.

The appcontext parameter is expected to be a list of 3-tuples, if specified, and sets the application context for the connection. Application context is available in the database by using the sys_context() PL/SQL method and can be used within a logon trigger as well as any other PL/SQL procedures. Each entry in the list is expected to contain three strings: the namespace, the name and the value.

The tag parameter, if specified, is expected to be a string and will limit the sessions that can be returned from a session pool unless the matchanytag parameter is set to True. In that case sessions with the specified tag will be preferred over others, but if no such sessions are available a session with a different tag may be returned instead. In any case, untagged sessions will always be returned if no sessions with the specified tag are available. Sessions are tagged when they are released back to the pool.

The shardingkey and supershardingkey parameters, if specified, are expected to be a sequence of values which will be used to identify the database shard to connect to. The key values can be strings, numbers, bytes or dates.

The stmtcachesize parameter, if specified, is expected to be an integer which specifies the initial value of stmtcachesize.

Changed in version 8.2: The parameter stmtcachesize was added.

cx_Oracle.Cursor(connection)

Constructor for creating a cursor. Return a new cursor object using the connection.

Note

This method is an extension to the DB API definition.

cx_Oracle.Date(year, month, day)

Construct an object holding a date value.

cx_Oracle.DateFromTicks(ticks)

Construct an object holding a date value from the given ticks value (number of seconds since the epoch; see the documentation of the standard Python time module for details).

cx_Oracle.init_oracle_client(lib_dir=None, config_dir=None, error_url=None, driver_name=None)

Initialize the Oracle client library now, rather than when cx_Oracle.clientversion(), cx_Oracle.connect() or cx_Oracle.SessionPool() is called for the first time. If initialization has already taken place, an exception is raised.

If the parameter lib_dir is not None or the empty string, the specified directory is the only one searched for the Oracle Client libraries; otherwise, the standard way of locating the Oracle Client library is used.

If the parameter config_dir is not None or the empty string, the specified directory is used to find Oracle Client library configuration files. This is equivalent to setting the environment variable TNS_ADMIN and overrides any value already set in TNS_ADMIN. If this parameter is not set, the standard way of locating Oracle Client library configuration files is used.

If the parameter error_url is not None or the empty string, the specified value is included in the message of the exception raised when the Oracle Client library cannot be loaded; otherwise, the cx_Oracle 8 Installation URL is included.

If the parameter driver_name is not None or the empty string, the specified value can be found in database views that give information about connections. For example, it is in the CLIENT_DRIVER column of V$SESSION_CONNECT_INFO. The standard is to set this value to "<name> : version>", where <name> is the name of the driver and <version> is its version. There should be a single space character before and after the colon. If this value is not specified, then the default value of “cx_Oracle : <version>” is used.

See cx_Oracle 8 Initialization for more discussion.

Note

This method is an extension to the DB API definition.

cx_Oracle.makedsn(host, port, sid=None, service_name=None, region=None, sharding_key=None, super_sharding_key=None)

Return a string suitable for use as the dsn parameter for connect(). This string is identical to the strings that are defined by the Oracle names server or defined in the tnsnames.ora file.

Note

This method is an extension to the DB API definition.

cx_Oracle.SessionPool(user=None, password=None, dsn=None, min=1, max=2, increment=1, connectiontype=cx_Oracle.Connection, threaded=True, getmode=cx_Oracle.SPOOL_ATTRVAL_NOWAIT, events=False, homogeneous=True, externalauth=False, encoding=None, nencoding=None, edition=None, timeout=0, wait_timeout=0, max_lifetime_session=0, session_callback=None, max_sessions_per_shard=0, soda_metadata_cache=False, stmtcachesize=20, ping_interval=60)

Create and return a session pool object. Session pooling (also known as connection pooling) creates a pool of available connections to the database, allowing applications to acquire a connection very quickly. It is of primary use in a server where connections are requested in rapid succession and used for a short period of time, for example in a web server. See Connection Pooling for more information.

Connection pooling in cx_Oracle is handled by Oracle’s Session pooling technology. This allows cx_Oracle applications to support features like Application Continuity.

The user, password and dsn parameters are the same as for cx_Oracle.connect()

The min, max and increment parameters control pool growth behavior. A fixed pool size where min equals max is recommended to help prevent connection storms and to help overall system stability. The min parameter is the number of connections opened when the pool is created. The increment is the number of connections that are opened whenever a connection request exceeds the number of currently open connections. The max parameter is the maximum number of connections that can be open in the connection pool.

Note that when using external authentication, heterogeneous pools, or Database Resident Connection Pooling (DRCP), then the pool growth behavior is different. In these cases the number of connections created at pool startup is always zero, and the increment is always one.

If the connectiontype parameter is specified, all calls to acquire() will create connection objects of that type, rather than the base type defined at the module level.

The getmode parameter indicates whether or not future SessionPool.acquire() calls will wait for available connections. It can be one of the Session Pool Get Modes values.

The events parameter is expected to be a boolean expression which indicates whether or not to initialize Oracle in events mode. This is required for continuous query notification and high availability event notifications.

The homogeneous parameter is expected to be a boolean expression which indicates whether or not to create a homogeneous pool. A homogeneous pool requires that all connections in the pool use the same credentials. As such proxy authentication and external authentication is not possible with a homogeneous pool. See Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Connection Pools.

The externalauth parameter is expected to be a boolean expression which indicates whether or not external authentication should be used. External authentication implies that something other than the database is authenticating the user to the database. This includes the use of operating system authentication and Oracle wallets. See Connecting Using External Authentication.

The encoding and nencoding parameters set the encodings used for string values transferred between cx_Oracle and Oracle Database, see Character Sets and Globalization. Note the default encoding and nencoding values changed to “UTF-8” in cx_Oracle 8, and any character set in NLS_LANG is ignored. In a future release of cx_Oracle, only UTF-8 will be supported.

The edition parameter is expected to be a string, if specified, and sets the edition to use for the sessions in the pool. It is only relevant if both the client and the server are at least Oracle Database 11.2. See Edition-Based Redefinition (EBR).

The timeout parameter is expected to be an integer, if specified, and sets the length of time (in seconds) after which idle sessions in the pool are terminated. Note that termination only occurs when the pool is accessed. The default value of 0 means that no idle sessions are terminated. The initial pool timeout must be non-zero if you subsequently want to change the timeout with SessionPool.reconfigure().

The wait_timeout parameter is expected to be an integer, if specified, and sets the length of time (in milliseconds) that the caller should wait for a session to become available in the pool before returning with an error. This value is only used if the getmode parameter is set to the value cx_Oracle.SPOOL_ATTRVAL_TIMEDWAIT.

The max_lifetime_session parameter is expected to be an integer, if specified, and sets the maximum length of time (in seconds) a pooled session may exist. Sessions that are in use will not be closed. They become candidates for termination only when they are released back to the pool and have existed for longer than max_lifetime_session seconds. Note that termination only occurs when the pool is accessed. The default value is 0 which means that there is no maximum length of time that a pooled session may exist.

The session_callback parameter is expected to be either a string or a callable. If the session_callback parameter is a callable, it will be called when a newly created connection is returned from the pool, or when a tag is requested and that tag does not match the connection’s actual tag. The callable will be invoked with the connection and the requested tag as its only parameters. If the parameter is a string, it should be the name of a PL/SQL procedure that will be called when SessionPool.acquire() requests a tag and that tag does not match the connection’s actual tag. See Session CallBacks for Setting Pooled Connection State. Support for the PL/SQL procedure requires Oracle Client libraries 12.2 or later. See the OCI documentation for more information.

The max_sessions_per_shard parameter is expected to be an integer, if specified. Setting this greater than zero specifies the maximum number of sessions in the pool that can be used for any given shard in a sharded database. This lets connections in the pool be balanced across the shards. A value of zero will not set any maximum number of sessions for each shard. This value is ignored if the Oracle client library version is less than 18.3.

The soda_metadata_cache parameter is expected to be a boolean expresion which indicates whether or not to enable the SODA metatata cache. This significantly improves the performance of methods SodaDatabase.createCollection() and SodaDatabase.openCollection() but can become out of date as it does not track changes made externally. It is also only available in Oracle Client 19.11 and higher. See Using the SODA Metadata Cache.

The stmtcachesize parameter, if specified, is expected to be an integer which specifies the initial value of stmtcachesize.

The ping_interval parameter, if specified, is expected to be an integer which specifies the initial value of ping_interval.

Note

This method is an extension to the DB API definition.

Changed in version 8.2: The parameters soda_metadata_cache, stmtcachesize and ping_interval were added. For consistency and compliance with the PEP 8 naming style, the parameter waitTimeout was renamed to wait_timeout, the parameter maxLifetimeSession was renamed to max_lifetime_session, the parameter sessionCallback was renamed to session_callback and the parameter maxSessionsPerShard was renamed to max_sessions_per_shard. The old names will continue to work as keyword parameters for a period of time. The threaded parameter value is ignored and threading is always enabled; in previous versions the default was False.

cx_Oracle.Time(hour, minute, second)

Construct an object holding a time value.

Note

The time only data type is not supported by Oracle. Calling this function will raise a NotSupportedError exception.

cx_Oracle.TimeFromTicks(ticks)

Construct an object holding a time value from the given ticks value (number of seconds since the epoch; see the documentation of the standard Python time module for details).

Note

The time only data type is not supported by Oracle. Calling this function will raise a NotSupportedError exception.

cx_Oracle.Timestamp(year, month, day, hour, minute, second)

Construct an object holding a time stamp value.

cx_Oracle.TimestampFromTicks(ticks)

Construct an object holding a time stamp value from the given ticks value (number of seconds since the epoch; see the documentation of the standard Python time module for details).

Constants

General

cx_Oracle.apilevel

String constant stating the supported DB API level. Currently ‘2.0’.

cx_Oracle.buildtime

String constant stating the time when the binary was built.

Note

This constant is an extension to the DB API definition.

cx_Oracle.paramstyle

String constant stating the type of parameter marker formatting expected by the interface. Currently ‘named’ as in ‘where name = :name’.

cx_Oracle.threadsafety

Integer constant stating the level of thread safety that the interface supports. Currently 2, which means that threads may share the module and connections, but not cursors. Sharing means that a thread may use a resource without wrapping it using a mutex semaphore to implement resource locking.

Note that in order to make use of multiple threads in a program which intends to connect and disconnect in different threads, the threaded parameter to connect() must be True.

cx_Oracle.version
cx_Oracle.__version__

String constant stating the version of the module. Currently ‘8.3.0-dev’.

Note

This attribute is an extension to the DB API definition.

Advanced Queuing: Delivery Modes

These constants are extensions to the DB API definition. They are possible values for the deliverymode attribute of the dequeue options object passed as the options parameter to the Connection.deq() method as well as the deliverymode attribute of the enqueue options object passed as the options parameter to the Connection.enq() method. They are also possible values for the deliverymode attribute of the message properties object passed as the msgproperties parameter to the Connection.deq() and Connection.enq() methods.

cx_Oracle.MSG_BUFFERED

This constant is used to specify that enqueue/dequeue operations should enqueue or dequeue buffered messages.

cx_Oracle.MSG_PERSISTENT

This constant is used to specify that enqueue/dequeue operations should enqueue or dequeue persistent messages. This is the default value.

cx_Oracle.MSG_PERSISTENT_OR_BUFFERED

This constant is used to specify that dequeue operations should dequeue either persistent or buffered messages.

Advanced Queuing: Dequeue Modes

These constants are extensions to the DB API definition. They are possible values for the mode attribute of the dequeue options object. This object is the options parameter for the Connection.deq() method.

cx_Oracle.DEQ_BROWSE

This constant is used to specify that dequeue should read the message without acquiring any lock on the message (equivalent to a select statement).

cx_Oracle.DEQ_LOCKED

This constant is used to specify that dequeue should read and obtain a write lock on the message for the duration of the transaction (equivalent to a select for update statement).

cx_Oracle.DEQ_REMOVE

This constant is used to specify that dequeue should read the message and update or delete it. This is the default value.

cx_Oracle.DEQ_REMOVE_NODATA

This constant is used to specify that dequeue should confirm receipt of the message but not deliver the actual message content.

Advanced Queuing: Dequeue Navigation Modes

These constants are extensions to the DB API definition. They are possible values for the navigation attribute of the dequeue options object. This object is the options parameter for the Connection.deq() method.

cx_Oracle.DEQ_FIRST_MSG

This constant is used to specify that dequeue should retrieve the first available message that matches the search criteria. This resets the position to the beginning of the queue.

cx_Oracle.DEQ_NEXT_MSG

This constant is used to specify that dequeue should retrieve the next available message that matches the search criteria. If the previous message belongs to a message group, AQ retrieves the next available message that matches the search criteria and belongs to the message group. This is the default.

cx_Oracle.DEQ_NEXT_TRANSACTION

This constant is used to specify that dequeue should skip the remainder of the transaction group and retrieve the first message of the next transaction group. This option can only be used if message grouping is enabled for the current queue.

Advanced Queuing: Dequeue Visibility Modes

These constants are extensions to the DB API definition. They are possible values for the visibility attribute of the dequeue options object. This object is the options parameter for the Connection.deq() method.

cx_Oracle.DEQ_IMMEDIATE

This constant is used to specify that dequeue should perform its work as part of an independent transaction.

cx_Oracle.DEQ_ON_COMMIT

This constant is used to specify that dequeue should be part of the current transaction. This is the default value.

Advanced Queuing: Dequeue Wait Modes

These constants are extensions to the DB API definition. They are possible values for the wait attribute of the dequeue options object. This object is the options parameter for the Connection.deq() method.

cx_Oracle.DEQ_NO_WAIT

This constant is used to specify that dequeue not wait for messages to be available for dequeuing.

cx_Oracle.DEQ_WAIT_FOREVER

This constant is used to specify that dequeue should wait forever for messages to be available for dequeuing. This is the default value.

Advanced Queuing: Enqueue Visibility Modes

These constants are extensions to the DB API definition. They are possible values for the visibility attribute of the enqueue options object. This object is the options parameter for the Connection.enq() method.

cx_Oracle.ENQ_IMMEDIATE

This constant is used to specify that enqueue should perform its work as part of an independent transaction.

cx_Oracle.ENQ_ON_COMMIT

This constant is used to specify that enqueue should be part of the current transaction. This is the default value.

Advanced Queuing: Message States

These constants are extensions to the DB API definition. They are possible values for the state attribute of the message properties object. This object is the msgproperties parameter for the Connection.deq() and Connection.enq() methods.

cx_Oracle.MSG_EXPIRED

This constant is used to specify that the message has been moved to the exception queue.

cx_Oracle.MSG_PROCESSED

This constant is used to specify that the message has been processed and has been retained.

cx_Oracle.MSG_READY

This constant is used to specify that the message is ready to be processed.

cx_Oracle.MSG_WAITING

This constant is used to specify that the message delay has not yet been reached.

Advanced Queuing: Other

These constants are extensions to the DB API definition. They are special constants used in advanced queuing.

cx_Oracle.MSG_NO_DELAY

This constant is a possible value for the delay attribute of the message properties object passed as the msgproperties parameter to the Connection.deq() and Connection.enq() methods. It specifies that no delay should be imposed and the message should be immediately available for dequeuing. This is also the default value.

cx_Oracle.MSG_NO_EXPIRATION

This constant is a possible value for the expiration attribute of the message properties object passed as the msgproperties parameter to the Connection.deq() and Connection.enq() methods. It specifies that the message never expires. This is also the default value.

Connection Authorization Modes

These constants are extensions to the DB API definition. They are possible values for the mode parameter of the connect() method.

cx_Oracle.DEFAULT_AUTH

This constant is used to specify that default authentication is to take place. This is the default value if no mode is passed at all.

New in version 7.2.

cx_Oracle.PRELIM_AUTH

This constant is used to specify that preliminary authentication is to be used. This is needed for performing database startup and shutdown.

cx_Oracle.SYSASM

This constant is used to specify that SYSASM access is to be acquired.

cx_Oracle.SYSBKP

This constant is used to specify that SYSBACKUP access is to be acquired.

cx_Oracle.SYSDBA

This constant is used to specify that SYSDBA access is to be acquired.

cx_Oracle.SYSDGD

This constant is used to specify that SYSDG access is to be acquired.

cx_Oracle.SYSKMT

This constant is used to specify that SYSKM access is to be acquired.

cx_Oracle.SYSOPER

This constant is used to specify that SYSOPER access is to be acquired.

cx_Oracle.SYSRAC

This constant is used to specify that SYSRAC access is to be acquired.

Database Shutdown Modes

These constants are extensions to the DB API definition. They are possible values for the mode parameter of the Connection.shutdown() method.

cx_Oracle.DBSHUTDOWN_ABORT

This constant is used to specify that the caller should not wait for current processing to complete or for users to disconnect from the database. This should only be used in unusual circumstances since database recovery may be necessary upon next startup.

cx_Oracle.DBSHUTDOWN_FINAL

This constant is used to specify that the instance can be truly halted. This should only be done after the database has been shutdown with one of the other modes (except abort) and the database has been closed and dismounted using the appropriate SQL commands.

cx_Oracle.DBSHUTDOWN_IMMEDIATE

This constant is used to specify that all uncommitted transactions should be rolled back and any connected users should be disconnected.

cx_Oracle.DBSHUTDOWN_TRANSACTIONAL

This constant is used to specify that further connections to the database should be prohibited and no new transactions should be allowed. It then waits for all active transactions to complete.

cx_Oracle.DBSHUTDOWN_TRANSACTIONAL_LOCAL

This constant is used to specify that further connections to the database should be prohibited and no new transactions should be allowed. It then waits for only local active transactions to complete.

Event Types

These constants are extensions to the DB API definition. They are possible values for the Message.type attribute of the messages that are sent for subscriptions created by the Connection.subscribe() method.

cx_Oracle.EVENT_AQ

This constant is used to specify that one or more messages are available for dequeuing on the queue specified when the subscription was created.

cx_Oracle.EVENT_DEREG

This constant is used to specify that the subscription has been deregistered and no further notifications will be sent.

cx_Oracle.EVENT_NONE

This constant is used to specify no information is available about the event.

cx_Oracle.EVENT_OBJCHANGE

This constant is used to specify that a database change has taken place on a table registered with the Subscription.registerquery() method.

cx_Oracle.EVENT_QUERYCHANGE

This constant is used to specify that the result set of a query registered with the Subscription.registerquery() method has been changed.

cx_Oracle.EVENT_SHUTDOWN

This constant is used to specify that the instance is in the process of being shut down.

cx_Oracle.EVENT_SHUTDOWN_ANY

This constant is used to specify that any instance (when running RAC) is in the process of being shut down.

cx_Oracle.EVENT_STARTUP

This constant is used to specify that the instance is in the process of being started up.

Operation Codes

These constants are extensions to the DB API definition. They are possible values for the operations parameter for the Connection.subscribe() method. One or more of these values can be OR’ed together. These values are also used by the MessageTable.operation or MessageQuery.operation attributes of the messages that are sent.

cx_Oracle.OPCODE_ALLOPS

This constant is used to specify that messages should be sent for all operations.

cx_Oracle.OPCODE_ALLROWS

This constant is used to specify that the table or query has been completely invalidated.

cx_Oracle.OPCODE_ALTER

This constant is used to specify that messages should be sent when a registered table has been altered in some fashion by DDL, or that the message identifies a table that has been altered.

cx_Oracle.OPCODE_DELETE

This constant is used to specify that messages should be sent when data is deleted, or that the message identifies a row that has been deleted.

cx_Oracle.OPCODE_DROP

This constant is used to specify that messages should be sent when a registered table has been dropped, or that the message identifies a table that has been dropped.

cx_Oracle.OPCODE_INSERT

This constant is used to specify that messages should be sent when data is inserted, or that the message identifies a row that has been inserted.

cx_Oracle.OPCODE_UPDATE

This constant is used to specify that messages should be sent when data is updated, or that the message identifies a row that has been updated.

Session Pool Get Modes

These constants are extensions to the DB API definition. They are possible values for the getmode parameter of the SessionPool() method.

cx_Oracle.SPOOL_ATTRVAL_FORCEGET

This constant is used to specify that a new connection will be returned if there are no free sessions available in the pool.

cx_Oracle.SPOOL_ATTRVAL_NOWAIT

This constant is used to specify that an exception should be raised if there are no free sessions available in the pool. This is the default value.

cx_Oracle.SPOOL_ATTRVAL_WAIT

This constant is used to specify that the caller should wait until a session is available if there are no free sessions available in the pool.

cx_Oracle.SPOOL_ATTRVAL_TIMEDWAIT

This constant is used to specify that the caller should wait for a period of time (defined by the wait_timeout parameter) for a session to become available before returning with an error.

Session Pool Purity

These constants are extensions to the DB API definition. They are possible values for the purity parameter of the connect() method, which is used in database resident connection pooling (DRCP).

cx_Oracle.ATTR_PURITY_DEFAULT

This constant is used to specify that the purity of the session is the default value identified by Oracle (see Oracle’s documentation for more information). This is the default value.

cx_Oracle.ATTR_PURITY_NEW

This constant is used to specify that the session acquired from the pool should be new and not have any prior session state.

cx_Oracle.ATTR_PURITY_SELF

This constant is used to specify that the session acquired from the pool need not be new and may have prior session state.

Subscription Grouping Classes

These constants are extensions to the DB API definition. They are possible values for the groupingClass parameter of the Connection.subscribe() method.

cx_Oracle.SUBSCR_GROUPING_CLASS_TIME

This constant is used to specify that events are to be grouped by the period of time in which they are received.

Subscription Grouping Types

These constants are extensions to the DB API definition. They are possible values for the groupingType parameter of the Connection.subscribe() method.

cx_Oracle.SUBSCR_GROUPING_TYPE_SUMMARY

This constant is used to specify that when events are grouped a summary of the events should be sent instead of the individual events. This is the default value.

cx_Oracle.SUBSCR_GROUPING_TYPE_LAST

This constant is used to specify that when events are grouped the last event that makes up the group should be sent instead of the individual events.

Subscription Namespaces

These constants are extensions to the DB API definition. They are possible values for the namespace parameter of the Connection.subscribe() method.

cx_Oracle.SUBSCR_NAMESPACE_AQ

This constant is used to specify that notifications should be sent when a queue has messages available to dequeue.

cx_Oracle.SUBSCR_NAMESPACE_DBCHANGE

This constant is used to specify that database change notification or query change notification messages are to be sent. This is the default value.

Subscription Protocols

These constants are extensions to the DB API definition. They are possible values for the protocol parameter of the Connection.subscribe() method.

cx_Oracle.SUBSCR_PROTO_HTTP

This constant is used to specify that notifications will be sent to an HTTP URL when a message is generated. This value is currently not supported.

cx_Oracle.SUBSCR_PROTO_MAIL

This constant is used to specify that notifications will be sent to an e-mail address when a message is generated. This value is currently not supported.

cx_Oracle.SUBSCR_PROTO_OCI

This constant is used to specify that notifications will be sent to the callback routine identified when the subscription was created. It is the default value and the only value currently supported.

cx_Oracle.SUBSCR_PROTO_SERVER

This constant is used to specify that notifications will be sent to a PL/SQL procedure when a message is generated. This value is currently not supported.

Subscription Quality of Service

These constants are extensions to the DB API definition. They are possible values for the qos parameter of the Connection.subscribe() method. One or more of these values can be OR’ed together.

cx_Oracle.SUBSCR_QOS_BEST_EFFORT

This constant is used to specify that best effort filtering for query result set changes is acceptable. False positive notifications may be received. This behaviour may be suitable for caching applications.

cx_Oracle.SUBSCR_QOS_DEREG_NFY

This constant is used to specify that the subscription should be automatically unregistered after the first notification is received.

cx_Oracle.SUBSCR_QOS_QUERY

This constant is used to specify that notifications should be sent if the result set of the registered query changes. By default no false positive notifications will be generated.

cx_Oracle.SUBSCR_QOS_RELIABLE

This constant is used to specify that notifications should not be lost in the event of database failure.

cx_Oracle.SUBSCR_QOS_ROWIDS

This constant is used to specify that the rowids of the inserted, updated or deleted rows should be included in the message objects that are sent.

DB API Types

cx_Oracle.BINARY

This type object is used to describe columns in a database that contain binary data. The database types DB_TYPE_RAW and DB_TYPE_LONG_RAW will compare equal to this value. If a variable is created with this type, the database type DB_TYPE_RAW will be used.

cx_Oracle.DATETIME

This type object is used to describe columns in a database that are dates. The database types DB_TYPE_DATE, DB_TYPE_TIMESTAMP, DB_TYPE_TIMESTAMP_LTZ and DB_TYPE_TIMESTAMP_TZ will all compare equal to this value. If a variable is created with this type, the database type DB_TYPE_DATE will be used.

cx_Oracle.NUMBER

This type object is used to describe columns in a database that are numbers. The database types DB_TYPE_BINARY_DOUBLE, DB_TYPE_BINARY_FLOAT, DB_TYPE_BINARY_INTEGER and DB_TYPE_NUMBER will all compare equal to this value. If a variable is created with this type, the database type DB_TYPE_NUMBER will be used.

cx_Oracle.ROWID

This type object is used to describe the pseudo column “rowid”. The database type DB_TYPE_ROWID will compare equal to this value. If a variable is created with this type, the database type DB_TYPE_VARCHAR will be used.

cx_Oracle.STRING

This type object is used to describe columns in a database that are strings. The database types DB_TYPE_CHAR, DB_TYPE_LONG, DB_TYPE_NCHAR, DB_TYPE_NVARCHAR and DB_TYPE_VARCHAR will all compare equal to this value. If a variable is created with this type, the database type DB_TYPE_VARCHAR will be used.

Database Types

All of these types are extensions to the DB API definition. They are found in query and object metadata. They can also be used to specify the database type when binding data.

cx_Oracle.DB_TYPE_BFILE

Describes columns, attributes or array elements in a database that are of type BFILE. It will compare equal to the DB API type BINARY.

cx_Oracle.DB_TYPE_BINARY_DOUBLE

Describes columns, attributes or array elements in a database that are of type BINARY_DOUBLE. It will compare equal to the DB API type NUMBER.

cx_Oracle.DB_TYPE_BINARY_FLOAT

Describes columns, attributes or array elements in a database that are of type BINARY_FLOAT. It will compare equal to the DB API type NUMBER.

cx_Oracle.DB_TYPE_BINARY_INTEGER

Describes attributes or array elements in a database that are of type BINARY_INTEGER. It will compare equal to the DB API type NUMBER.

cx_Oracle.DB_TYPE_BLOB

Describes columns, attributes or array elements in a database that are of type BLOB. It will compare equal to the DB API type BINARY.

cx_Oracle.DB_TYPE_BOOLEAN

Describes attributes or array elements in a database that are of type BOOLEAN. It is only available in Oracle 12.1 and higher and only within PL/SQL.

cx_Oracle.DB_TYPE_CHAR

Describes columns, attributes or array elements in a database that are of type CHAR. It will compare equal to the DB API type STRING.

Note that these are fixed length string values and behave differently from VARCHAR2.

cx_Oracle.DB_TYPE_CLOB

Describes columns, attributes or array elements in a database that are of type CLOB. It will compare equal to the DB API type STRING.

cx_Oracle.DB_TYPE_CURSOR

Describes columns in a database that are of type CURSOR. In PL/SQL these are knoown as REF CURSOR.

cx_Oracle.DB_TYPE_DATE

Describes columns, attributes or array elements in a database that are of type DATE. It will compare equal to the DB API type DATETIME.

cx_Oracle.DB_TYPE_INTERVAL_DS

Describes columns, attributes or array elements in a database that are of type INTERVAL DAY TO SECOND.

cx_Oracle.DB_TYPE_INTERVAL_YM

Describes columns, attributes or array elements in a database that are of type INTERVAL YEAR TO MONTH. This database type is not currently supported by cx_Oracle.

cx_Oracle.DB_TYPE_JSON

Describes columns in a database that are of type JSON (with Oracle Database 21 or later).

New in version 8.1.

cx_Oracle.DB_TYPE_LONG

Describes columns, attributes or array elements in a database that are of type LONG. It will compare equal to the DB API type STRING.

cx_Oracle.DB_TYPE_LONG_RAW

Describes columns, attributes or array elements in a database that are of type LONG RAW. It will compare equal to the DB API type BINARY.

cx_Oracle.DB_TYPE_NCHAR

Describes columns, attributes or array elements in a database that are of type NCHAR. It will compare equal to the DB API type STRING.

Note that these are fixed length string values and behave differently from NVARCHAR2.

cx_Oracle.DB_TYPE_NCLOB

Describes columns, attributes or array elements in a database that are of type NCLOB. It will compare equal to the DB API type STRING.

cx_Oracle.DB_TYPE_NUMBER

Describes columns, attributes or array elements in a database that are of type NUMBER. It will compare equal to the DB API type NUMBER.

cx_Oracle.DB_TYPE_NVARCHAR

Describes columns, attributes or array elements in a database that are of type NVARCHAR2. It will compare equal to the DB API type STRING.

cx_Oracle.DB_TYPE_OBJECT

Describes columns, attributes or array elements in a database that are an instance of a named SQL or PL/SQL type.

cx_Oracle.DB_TYPE_RAW

Describes columns, attributes or array elements in a database that are of type RAW. It will compare equal to the DB API type BINARY.

cx_Oracle.DB_TYPE_ROWID

Describes columns, attributes or array elements in a database that are of type ROWID or UROWID. It will compare equal to the DB API type ROWID.

cx_Oracle.DB_TYPE_TIMESTAMP

Describes columns, attributes or array elements in a database that are of type TIMESTAMP. It will compare equal to the DB API type DATETIME.

cx_Oracle.DB_TYPE_TIMESTAMP_LTZ

Describes columns, attributes or array elements in a database that are of type TIMESTAMP WITH LOCAL TIME ZONE. It will compare equal to the DB API type DATETIME.

cx_Oracle.DB_TYPE_TIMESTAMP_TZ

Describes columns, attributes or array elements in a database that are of type TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE. It will compare equal to the DB API type DATETIME.

cx_Oracle.DB_TYPE_VARCHAR

Describes columns, attributes or array elements in a database that are of type VARCHAR2. It will compare equal to the DB API type STRING.

Database Type Synonyms

All of the following constants are deprecated and will be removed in a future version of cx_Oracle.

cx_Oracle.BFILE

A synonym for DB_TYPE_BFILE.

Deprecated since version 8.0.

cx_Oracle.BLOB

A synonym for DB_TYPE_BLOB.

Deprecated since version 8.0.

cx_Oracle.BOOLEAN

A synonym for DB_TYPE_BOOLEAN.

Deprecated since version 8.0.

cx_Oracle.CLOB

A synonym for DB_TYPE_CLOB.

Deprecated since version 8.0.

cx_Oracle.CURSOR

A synonym for DB_TYPE_CURSOR.

Deprecated since version 8.0.

cx_Oracle.FIXED_CHAR

A synonym for DB_TYPE_CHAR.

Deprecated since version 8.0.

cx_Oracle.FIXED_NCHAR

A synonym for DB_TYPE_NCHAR.

Deprecated since version 8.0.

cx_Oracle.INTERVAL

A synonym for DB_TYPE_INTERVAL_DS.

Deprecated since version 8.0.

cx_Oracle.LONG_BINARY

A synonym for DB_TYPE_LONG_RAW.

Deprecated since version 8.0.

cx_Oracle.LONG_STRING

A synonym for DB_TYPE_LONG.

Deprecated since version 8.0.

cx_Oracle.NATIVE_FLOAT

A synonym for DB_TYPE_BINARY_DOUBLE.

Deprecated since version 8.0.

cx_Oracle.NATIVE_INT

A synonym for DB_TYPE_BINARY_INTEGER.

Deprecated since version 8.0.

cx_Oracle.NCHAR

A synonym for DB_TYPE_NVARCHAR.

Deprecated since version 8.0.

cx_Oracle.NCLOB

A synonym for DB_TYPE_NCLOB.

Deprecated since version 8.0.

cx_Oracle.OBJECT

A synonym for DB_TYPE_OBJECT.

Deprecated since version 8.0.

cx_Oracle.TIMESTAMP

A synonym for DB_TYPE_TIMESTAMP.

Deprecated since version 8.0.

Other Types

All of these types are extensions to the DB API definition.

cx_Oracle.ApiType

This type object is the Python type of the database API type constants BINARY, DATETIME, NUMBER, ROWID and STRING.

cx_Oracle.DbType

This type object is the Python type of the database type constants.

cx_Oracle.LOB

This type object is the Python type of DB_TYPE_BLOB, DB_TYPE_BFILE, DB_TYPE_CLOB and DB_TYPE_NCLOB data that is returned from cursors.

Exceptions

exception cx_Oracle.Warning

Exception raised for important warnings and defined by the DB API but not actually used by cx_Oracle.

exception cx_Oracle.Error

Exception that is the base class of all other exceptions defined by cx_Oracle and is a subclass of the Python StandardError exception (defined in the module exceptions).

exception cx_Oracle.InterfaceError

Exception raised for errors that are related to the database interface rather than the database itself. It is a subclass of Error.

exception cx_Oracle.DatabaseError

Exception raised for errors that are related to the database. It is a subclass of Error.

exception cx_Oracle.DataError

Exception raised for errors that are due to problems with the processed data. It is a subclass of DatabaseError.

exception cx_Oracle.OperationalError

Exception raised for errors that are related to the operation of the database but are not necessarily under the control of the programmer. It is a subclass of DatabaseError.

exception cx_Oracle.IntegrityError

Exception raised when the relational integrity of the database is affected. It is a subclass of DatabaseError.

exception cx_Oracle.InternalError

Exception raised when the database encounters an internal error. It is a subclass of DatabaseError.

exception cx_Oracle.ProgrammingError

Exception raised for programming errors. It is a subclass of DatabaseError.

exception cx_Oracle.NotSupportedError

Exception raised when a method or database API was used which is not supported by the database. It is a subclass of DatabaseError.

Exception handling

Note

PEP 249 (Python Database API Specification v2.0) says the following about exception values:

[…] The values of these exceptions are not defined. They should give the user a fairly good idea of what went wrong, though. […]

With cx_Oracle every exception object has exactly one argument in the args tuple. This argument is a cx_Oracle._Error object which has the following five read-only attributes.

_Error.code

Integer attribute representing the Oracle error number (ORA-XXXXX).

_Error.offset

Integer attribute representing the error offset when applicable.

_Error.message

String attribute representing the Oracle message of the error. This message is localized by the environment of the Oracle connection.

_Error.context

String attribute representing the context in which the exception was raised.

_Error.isrecoverable

Boolean attribute representing whether the error is recoverable or not. This is False in all cases unless both Oracle Database 12.1 (or later) and Oracle Client 12.1 (or later) are being used.

New in version 5.3.

This allows you to use the exceptions for example in the following way:

import cx_Oracle

connection = cx_Oracle.connect("cx_Oracle/dev@localhost/orclpdb1")
cursor = connection.cursor()

try:
    cursor.execute("select 1 / 0 from dual")
except cx_Oracle.DatabaseError as exc:
    error, = exc.args
    print("Oracle-Error-Code:", error.code)
    print("Oracle-Error-Message:", error.message)